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नमस्ते namaste and welcome to Learn 2 Nepali! We teach the beautiful language of Nepali in short, easy and fun lessons. Best of all, everything is completely free!

  • Abstract

    This document is an attempt to provide some basic insight of the structure of Nepali Grammar. The report deals with the writing system of Nepali introducing the alphabets and symbols in usage. Similarly the form classes or parts of speech of Nepali is also discussed followed by a detailed discussion on the phrase structure of the Nepali Grammar. Special Characteristics of the Nepali Grammar are well illustrated wherever necessary. The report is concluded by a brief overview of the sentential structure of the Nepali Language.

    1. Background

    Nepali is the national language of Nepal. It is also a medium of a uniform, nationwide, educational system, public administration and mass communication . The most recent official census conducted by the government of Nepal in 2001 reports that there are around 20 million Nepali speakers in Nepal, out of which, it is spoken as the mother tongue by 11 million people, and as a lingua franca by others. Nepali is also spoken widely in the neighboring countries of Nepal like India, Bhutan and Myanmar. The Indian Constitution has recognized Nepali as a major language of India [1].

    In this regard, despite the fact that the diaspora of Nepali speakers is comprised of more than 45 million people in Nepal and elsewhere, the Nepali language still continues to remain a underresourced language. Things seeming to be a matter to be taken granted for other languages like the availability of the digitized text corpora, digitized dictionaries, Natural Language, Image and Speech Processing Applications like the Spell-Checker and the Thesaurus, Grammar Checker, Machine Translation Systems, Optical Character Recognition Systems, Handwriting Recognition Systems, Text-To-Speech, Speech Recognition Systems, Speech-To-Text etc. are either in the early stages of development or totally new for the Nepali language.

  • There are several reasons for the low work profile of the Nepali Language in Computational Linguistics, the first one primarily being the lack of expertise and among several others, the lack of a sound research work required in the above acitivities. Other issues related to funds for the research and development support, the computer scientists and the linguists limiting themselves to their respective domains of interest thus creating a vacuum in the required collaboration are equally vital for the lagging behind of the Nepali language in producing the invaluable resources of computational linguistics.

    This report is an attempt from the side of a computer scientist to get into the study of the basic structure of the Nepali Grammar. The results or findings of the study are believed to be very much substantial in the Spell Checker, Thesaurus, Grammar Checker, Machine Translation Systems, Optical Character Recognition Systems development for Nepali. Various resources available on the Nepali Grammar have been duly consulted while preparing the report. The resources consulted have been listed in the bibliography section of this report.

    2. Introduction

    Nepali is an Indo-Aryan language. It takes it’s root from Sanskrit, the classicial language of India. Nepali was previously known as Khas Kura and the language of the Khasa kingdom, which ruled over the foothills of current Nepal during the 13th and 14th centuries. The history of the usage of Nepali in writing dates as back as the 12th century AD. Nepali is written with the Devanagari alphabet, which developed from the Brahmi script in the 11th century AD. Linguistically, Nepali is most closely related to Hindi. A large proportion of the technical vocabulary is shared by Hindi and Nepali. Even the script is more or less the same for both languages and differing with each other in only a few minor details.

So as we learnt in the Introduction section, Nepali words, in the exact same way as English ones,
are composed of Vowels and Consonants. In Nepali all the vowels come at the start of the
alphabet. We’re going to begin by learning the vowels! Heres a little sneak peak of all the vowels in Nepali…

On this page you’ll find lessons teaching basic Conversational Phrases in Nepali (the clue is in the title!). These pages will teach you how to actually have a conversation!

A: तपाईको नाम के हो ?
B: मेरो नाम राम हो ।
A: तपाईको बाको नाम के हो ?
B: मेरो बाको नाम श्याम हो ।
A: तपाईको आमाको नाम के हो ?
B: मेरो आमाको नाम अमृता हो ।
A: तपाईको बा-आमाको घर कहाँ हो ?
B: मेरो बा-आमाको घर नेपाल हो ।

अनुबाद (Translation)
A: What is your name (polite)?
B: My name is Ram.
A: What is your father's name?
B: My father's name is Shyam.
A: What is your mother's name?
B: My mother's name is Amrita.
A: Where do your parents (literally: father-mother) live?
B: My parents (literally: father-mother) live in Nepal.

  • Grammar structure (Sentence Structure) of Nepali Language.

    English is a Subject+Verb+Object language (so is French)whereas Nepali is a Subject+Object+Verb language (so is Japanese). Generally The subject comes ahead of the sentence and the verb comes in the last.
    Let me tell you what a sentence is. A sentence is a, well, group of words which are arranged so that it makes sense. There are three basic components in a complete sentence and they are ‘Subject’, ‘Object' and 'Verb’.
    The Subject: The subject is the doer of an action, or an 'action-doer’. It does the action, and the action falls directly or indirectly on the object. The subject can be a noun or a pronoun.
    The Object: The object is the receiver of an action, which was done by the subject. In other words, it is the receiver of an action. It receives its action from a subject. The Object can be a noun or a pronoun.
    The Verb: The verb is the action. An action is anything that brings about or conveys an effect. For example, verbs include ‘to eat’, ‘to write’ etc. The verb or the action is done by the subject and its effect falls on the object, directly or indirectly. Example of verbs include : to eat, to drink etc.


    Transitive Verb = A verb which requires a direct object.
    Intransitive Verb = A verb which doesn’t take a direct object.
    Direct Object = An object which takes the action (verb) done by the subject directly, hence is the primary object. (Like: cake in I ate a cake)
    Indirect Object = An object which is affected by the action but is not the primary object (like him in I gave him a book)
    Postpositions = Case Markers which parallel prepositions
    Case Markers = A type of marking attached to a word to show what that ‘thing’ is (like to show whether it is a subject or an object etc.)
    Conjugation = Inflection otherwise a form of a Verb, like ‘ate’ is the past tense conjugation of the verb ‘to eat’


    As you know, Nepali is a SOV language, so word order in would appear as ‘John apples ate' instead of what it is in English: John ate apples.
    Take this Sentence:
    John watches TV.
    In this sentence, John is the subject, watches is the verb and TV is the object.
    John + watches + TV
    Subject +verb+ object
    Now, in Nepali, the verb and the object switch places.
    John TV hercha (जन टिवी हेर्छ)
    Subject + object + verb
    Did you notice that TV shifted in the middle? The verb ‘hercha' is the verb here, with a meaning of 'watches'. Verbs are conjugated extensively, but more on this later.
    The subject goes in the beginning of the sentence.
    The object follows the subject in the sentence.
    The verb appears in the end of the sentence.
    I don’t need to say much on it, because the subject and the object are nouns (or pronouns).

    Adjectives are modifying words. They show the characteristics which an object has. For example, an adjective is ‘Rato' (रातो) which means 'Red’.
    The adjective, like in English, comes before the noun it modifies. Example:
    Thulo Ghar (ठूलो घर)
    Adjective + Object (as in item)
    Big house
    in whichthulo means 'big' andghar means ‘house’.
    sano ghar (सानो घर)
    Adjective + Object
    Small house
    In each case, the adjective that modifies the object comes before it. But what if you wanted to say ‘That house is big’?
    Tyo ghar thulo chha. (त्यो घर ठूलो छ)
    Determiner + Object + Adjective + Verb
    That house is Big.
    ‘Chha' is a version of 'hunu’. Hunu is the Nepali Version of the verb ‘To be’. You can read more about it here. Anyway, if the adjective is used to describe the object like the above way, then it follows a method similar to English, but of course, the verb always comes last.

  • Learn the Nepali Alphabet

    Before you start to learn Nepali, it is best to first learn the Hindi alphabet, also called Devanagari. All the grammar lessons are written using the Devanagari script, so you can not learn grammar from this website without first learning to read it.

    Learn Nepali Grammar

    When you have learned the Devanagari script and can read it, it is time to learn grammar by going through the free Nepali lessons. In each lesson, you will learn a few new vocabulary and a new grammatical point. Audio recordings of native Nepali-speakers will soon be available in the lessons. There will also be a few example sentences in both English and Nepali at the end of the lesson that utilize both the new vocabulary and the new grammar to help you practice what you learned.

    Nepali Practice

    Learning to speak Nepali fluently will take more than just learning all the grammatical rules. You must practice what you have learned until it you can do it without thinking about the rules. I will soon be adding helpful resources to help you learn Nepali faster. These will include Nepali stories with audio recordings, Nepali songs with lyrics, and more.

  • Namaste and welcome to online Nepali language school. Our goal is to make learning Nepali language easy and fun. In addition Nepali language courses and translation for english speakers we have included translation from Nepali to english. All the courses and translations are accompanied by audio from native english and nepali speakers. We will also teach you nepali script so that you can read and write nepali. Please make use of the forum and contact us if you have any suggestions and/or questions. The forum will act as a support and practice place for both people learning nepali from english and the one’s learning english from nepali. In addition, we have also included traditional nepali recipes. All our contents and services are free of charge.

    Also, check out our new sections of Nepali News, blogs about peace in Nepal, express your views about what can be done, and what needs to be done. We also added a new page with Health, Science, adn technology in Nepal. We we will be adding more information regularly. Please check back for more updates.

  • If you are a cross-cultural worker among Bhutanese and/or Nepali diasporas, you may be tempted to think that learning to speak Nepali is not very important. After all, now they are living in the U.S. or Canada or New Zealand and we should really focus on teaching them the host language. Well, think again. Our experience working with diaspora (migrant) people has helped us to see that the efforts of Christ-followers to learn the language of their new neighbors from other nations can reap great dividends. Beyond the obvious practical benefits, learning to converse with your Bhutanese friend in their own language communicates to them that you truly love them "as you love yourself." You may think of this as a kind of "inverted assimilation", in which a Christ-follower from a host country seeks to incarnate the Savior in the lives, homes, communities and hearts of new immigrants.

    Please note one thing, however. It is essential that all your Nepali language study be done in the context of authentic, regular and deep relationships with Nepali speakers. They will tend to be delighted to help you with your language learning, so don't be shy ("sharam namanna!"). Your language-learning should be a time for deepening relationships. Beyond this, there is the practical reality that there are differenced between the way Bhutanese refugees speak Nepali and the way Nepali is taught in books. You will never know these differences without relationships.

So do you think you are ready to begin your adventure in Learning Nepali? Excellent! Remember that although learning a language fluently may take years, it is only ever one small step at a time.

Lets get Started Now!!!

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